MIHI UMY organized a Book Seminar on International Organization written by Mr. Sugito, a senior lecturer of international relations department UMY on 22 April 2017. He was described that the conception of his departs from the perception of the three mainstream theories namely realism, liberalism/institutionalism, and constructivism/idealism on international organization. The three theories were totally different perceiving on international organizations.

As Realist political orientations is power, the realism views on international organization tend to be opportunistic. Realist uses the membership in international organization in order to implement “power” orientation against another country or to deter potential enemies. For instance, NATO, UN, OIC, etc. as realist perspective was perceived as a group of anarchical actor/states to compete to power. However, a significant change happened especially on paradigm shift on international relations theories since couples of decades.

One of the main factors is technology. A state for instance, is not requiring an official envoy or diplomat to build bilateral relations with certain countries. Instead, there were merged some a new actors called non-state actors such as organization as well as individual actors. The non-state actors are able to establish called “transnational relations” without official institution. This is commonly practiced in trade and economic cooperation. The development of transnational relations is more expanding compared to the trans-government relations (G-to-G).

As a closing statement, he insisted that international organization has an authoritative power towards member states. Another characteristic is the membership of the international organization is voluntary. There is no compulsion on membership. The hegemony of international organization is totally relay on the member of organization.