1. Disaster Diplomacy: Content Analysis on Disaster Diplomacy Regime in Indonesia
Surwandono, Ratih Herningtyas
This paper aims to analysis some governmental regulations on disaster issues in Indonesia to understand government disaster diplomacy practices. Indonesia is a country that has significant levels of exposure to natural disaster such as earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, drought, flood, and cyclone. Some of the most destructive natural disasters happened in Indonesia were the earthquake followed by tsunami that hit Aceh on 2004, earthquake hit Yogyakarta and Central Java on 2006 and volcanic eruption of Mount Merapi Yogyakarta and Central Java 2011. Learning from Aceh Tsunami, disaster can be utilized as a strategic means of diplomacy to resolve conflict, increase cooperation between state, as well as social capital to solve certain problems in disaster prone areas. Unfortunately, another natural disaster cases in Indonesia have shown that important government stakeholders on disaster issues have less understanding on how to conduct disaster diplomacy.
Using content analysis by selecting important signs, which have suited meaning with disaster diplomacy as main specific message toward five governmental regulations on disaster issues, this paper found that government stakeholders still have less understanding on disaster diplomacy because of first, the regulation on disaster management in Indonesia is less regulate about conception of disaster diplomacy. Second, government regulation is less articulate on how to construct and conduct disaster diplomacy as important tool on disaster management.
Keywords : disaster diplomacy, disaster regulation, content analysis
2. Architecture of Indonesia’s Paradiplomacy
SURWANDONO, DIAN AZMAWATI
Paradiplomacy as a policy and practise of foreign affairs by sub state or local government has undergone significant development in Indonesia. In the last fifteen years, Indonesian government has produced regulations on the management of foreign affairs both in national and local government level based on symmetrical and asymmetrical decentralisation principals.
This article will explore the normative message in Indonesian paradiplomacy regulations by using content analysis method. It is expected that by using the content analysis method, this research will be able to capture thoroughly the structure, orientation, and implications of paradiplomacy policy in the attempt to achieve Indonesian national interests.
The finding in this article is that the normative structure of Indonesian paradiplomacy regulations give bigger administrative, procedurals, and technical authority to the local governmant so that the articulations of Indonesian national interest through the local governmant is not yet optimum.
Keywords: Paradiplomacy, Content Analysis, Orientation Structure
3. STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA COMPARATIVE AND FOREIGN POLICIES
Surwandono, Ali Maksum, Reevany Bustami
This research aims to produce a portfolio concerning strategic orientation of foreign policy in Indonesia and Malaysia through various activities, which are examining legal documents of Indonesia and Malaysia with content analysis and framing analysis focusing on strategic orientation of Indonesia and Malaysia foreign policy to deeply understand the essential constructed message in it, understanding the development of Indonesian and Malaysian foreign policies, examining Indonesian and Malaysian foreign policies process and outputs, proposing academic recommendation to Indonesia and Malaysia in order to enhance bilateral relations as well as to prevent bilateral tension between the two nations, designing foreign policy handbook as academic guidance to those who interested in foreign policy analysis such as diplomats, IR students, researchers as well as the public and the result of this research is expected to publish in reputable international conferences and peer-reviewed journals.
Data collection in this research on strategic orientation of Indonesia and Malaysia foreign policy employs sampling, by which three products of primary regulation belonging to each country become sample of the research. The data analysis or interpretation utilizes content and framing analysis towards the use of specific word (sign) based on level, context, setting and roadmap of how the legal documents have been formulated.
The advantages of conducting this research collaboration between the Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, (UMY) Indonesia and Universiti Sains Malaysia, (USM) Malaysia are: 1) both institutions have more opportunity to enhance study on non-traditional security, and 2) this research can practically become a portfolio as reference for political decision making process and contribute to the establishment of progressive management system of strategic orientation of foreign policy in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Keywords: Strategic Orientation of Foreign Policy, Document Analysis, Indonesia Foreign Policy, Malaysia Foreign Policy
4. DISASTER DIPLOMACY IN MALAYSIA
SURWANDONO, MUHAMMAD ZAHRUL ANAM
This research aims to produce a portfolio concerning management system of disaster diplomacy in Malaysia through various activities, which are examining legal documents of Malaysia with content analysis focusing on mitigation of disaster to deeply understand the essential constructed message in it, investigating the social construction from the law of disaster with framing analysis, creating road map evaluation of the disaster management system that both countries have prepared, by which Malaysia can well recognizes stakeholders’ position in its law of disaster, a simulation experimenting the management system of two countries as well as delivering international publications discussing road map and the management system of disaster diplomacy in Southeast Asia to reputable journals or international conference. Data collection in this research on the management system of disaster diplomacy employs sampling, by which three products of primary regulation belonging to each country become sample of the research. The data analysis or interpretation utilizes content and framing analysis towards the use of specific word (sign) based on level, context, setting and roadmap of how the legal documents have been formulated. The advantages of conducting this research collaboration between the Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia and International Islamic University of Malaysia are: 1) both institutions have more opportunity to enhance study on non-traditional security, and 2) this research can practically become a portfolio as reference for political decision making process and result new contribution to establish more progressively the management system of disaster diplomacy.
Keywords: Disaster Diplomacy, The Law of Disaster, Content Analysis, Framing and Roadmap of Disaster Diplomacy
5. Shifting Actors and Strategy in Indonesia’s Disaster Diplomacy After Tsunami Aceh 2004
Ratih Herningtyas & Surwandono
Diplomacy as a foreign policy instrument of certain states to attain its national interest has traditionally been the authority of the central government regarding to its adequate capability and authority than other actors. Indonesia as a country which is very vulnerable to natural disasters and has been exposed by many kind of disaster such as tsunami, earthquake, volcano eruption, typhoon, landslide, flood etc, conducts disaster diplomacy to attain its certain interests. The central government used to play a significant role on disaster diplomacy. However after Tsunami Aceh 2004, diplomacy that only played by the central government had lead to unadequate, un-well manage, even distortion of the political, social, economic and bureaucratic problems.
Using the concept of disaster diplomacy and para diplomacy, this paper will explain how the issue of natural disasters drove some new actors especialy local government which has disaster prone areas, to participate on disaster diplomacy activities and develop new strategy to managed and capitalized natural disaster into positive social capital to solve social problems, economic, political and social culture in disaster prone areas. Natural disasters have a uniqueness to be capitalized as a strategic instrument to build regional cooperation and international collaboration to reduce the degree of material and immaterial losses from the disaster that occurred at any time.
Keywords: Disaster diplomacy, Local government, Para-diplomacy and International Cooperation